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Definitions

Even seasoned cooks and chefs have a word or abbreviation that puzzles them from time to time. For this purpose we've added baking/cooking definitions and abbreviations. Select the definition you want to view from the table below. Feel free to contact us if you have any questions.

A
Al Dente
All-Purpose Flour

B
Baking Chocolate
Baking Powder
Baking Soda
Baste
Beat
Blanch
BP
Bread Flour
Brown
Brown Sugar

C
C - c
Cake Flour
Chop
Cornstarch
Cream of Tartar
Combine
Confectioners Sugar Cream
Crush
Cut In

D
doz
Dredge
Drippings
Drizzle
Drop
Dry Rub
E
Egg Wash
Emulsify
Evaporated Milk
F
Fold
G
Grease

H
hr

I
 
J
 
K
Knead

L
lb
M
Marinade
min
Mince
Mix
mod
N
 
O
oz
P
Packed
Parboil
Parchment Paper
Pare
Pinch
Preheat
pt
Punch (dough)
Puree
Q
qt
R
Reduce
Roll
Roux

S
Sauté
Scald
Separate
Shred
Sift
Simmer
10x Sugar

T
Tbsp - tbsp
Thicken
tsp
U
 
V
 
W
Whisk
X
 
Y
Yeast
Z
Zest


Al Dente

Pasta Al Dente

Al dente refers to the desired texture of cooked pasta in Italian cooking. It literally means "to the tooth". When the pasta is cooked al dente, there should be a slight resistance in the center when the pasta is chewed.


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All-Purpose Flour

All-Purpose Flour

Wheat flour milled from hard wheat or a blend of soft and hard wheat. Used in homes for some yeast breads, quick breads, cakes, cookies, pastries and noodles. All-purpose flour may be bleached or unbleached. Both may be enriched with four vitamins (niacin, riboflavin, folic acid, and thiamin) and iron. All-purpose flour may be used in a wide variety of home baked goods, such as cookies, quick breads, and some yeast breads.


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Baking Chololate

Baking Chocolate

Unsweetened chocolate that contains no additional ingredients.


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BP - Baking Powder

Baking Powder

A leavening agent made from a combination of baking soda, an acid (such as cream of tartar) and a moisture absorber (such as cornstarch). When baking powder is mixed with moist ingredients, carbon dioxide bubbles are released, causing batter to rise.


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Baking Soda

Baking Soda

A leavening agent known as sodium bicarbonate. When baking soda is combined with an acid ingredient, carbon dioxide gas bubbles are released, causing dough or batter to rise.


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Baste

Baste

To baste means to spoon or pour a liquid over foods, usually meat, during cooking or grilling. The liquid may be a marinade, the drippings from the bottom of the pan, or a fat like butter or oils.


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Beat

Beat

To agitate one or more ingredients rapidly using a brisk up-and-over motion to add air into a mixture using a spoon, whisk, rotary beaters or electric mixer.


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Blanch

Blanch

This term means to plunge foods into boiling water for a few seconds or a few minutes, then remove and place in ice water. This process sets the color of vegetables, lets you easily peel fruits, and slip the skins off nuts. The food does not cook all the way through, so crisp texture is preserved.


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Bread Flour

Bread Flour

Contains wheats higher in gluten, which gives breads more structure and volume.


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Brown Sugar

Brown Sugar

Made by mixing refined molasses syrup with white sugar. Light and dark brown sugar are two types available; the darker has a more intense flavor.


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Brown

Brown

Browning foods, usually meats, involves heating them in a skillet with a small amount of oil. This process is repeated on each side of the cut of meat. The meat should only be cooked for 5 minutes or so on each side. One common beginner's mistake is to overcook the meat at this stage, which results in less tender results.


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C - c

Cup

Cup. The cup is a unit of measurement for volume, used in cooking to measure bulk foods, such as chopped vegetables (dry measurement), and liquids (fluid measurement). It is in common use in many countries.


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Cake Flour

Cake Flour

Contains soft wheats, high in starch, which gives cakes a fine texture.


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Cornstarch

Corn Starch

A dense, finely ground flour made from the endosperm portion of the corn kernel. Cornstarch is used to thicken desserts, sauces, soups etc. It also keeps sauces clear, not cloudy.


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Cream of Tartar

Cream of Tartar

A white powder processed from the acid deposited on the inside of wine barrels. Cream of tartar is added to egg whites before beating to improve stability and volume, and to candies and frostings to make them creamier.


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10X or Confectioner Sugar

10X Sugar

Granulated sugar that has been crushed to a fine powder. It's used in making icing for cakes, cookies, etc.


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Chop

Chop

To cut into small pieces with a bench cutter, knife or scissors.


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Combine

Combine

To mix or blend two or more ingredients together.


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Cream

Cream

To work (with spoon or mixer) one or more foods until soft and creamy.


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Crush

Crush

To pulverize, as with herbs and spices used in baking.


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Cut In

Cut-In

To combine fat into dry ingredients with a pastry blender, two knives, or fingers with the least possible amount of blending.


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doz

Dozen

Dozen, a group of 12.


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Dredge

Dredge

The process of pulling foods through dry ingredients to coat them before cooking. Flour is the most common dredge used, but other ingredients can be used as well.


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Drippings

Drippings

Drippings are the juices, marinade, melted fat, and browned particles that are in the bottom of a pan or skillet after cooking meats. They form the base of many sauces.


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Drizzle

Drizzle

To pour a light amount, from a spoon, over food.


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Drop

Drop

To deposit even portions of dough on a baking sheet using spoon or batter dispenser


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Dry Rub

Dry Rub

A dry rub is a combination of spices and herbs that is rubbed into meat to help flavor and tenderize the flesh before cooking.


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Egg Wash

Egg Wash

Whole egg or egg white mixed with small amount of milk or water and brushed over dough prior to baking; creates glossy baked surface.


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Emulsify

Emulsify

Emulsify means combining two liquids together which normally don't mix easily. The ingredients are usually oil or a fat like olive oil or egg yolks, and another liquid like water or broth. Acidic liquids like lemon juice help the process by changing the pH of the mixture. The liquids are combined very slowly, usually drop by drop, while beating vigorously, which suspends drops of liquid throughout each other. Bearnaise, hollandaise, and mayonnaise are examples of emulsified foods.


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Evaporated Milk

Evaporated Milk

A liquid, slightly thicker than milk, made by homogenizing whole milk from which 60 percent of the water has been removed.


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Fold

Fold

To gently combine two or more ingredients or a delicate mixture into a heavier, thicker one by cutting vertically through the mixture and turning it over by sliding the mixing tool across the bottom of the bowl or pan with each turn. To combine without stirring or deflating a mixture.


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Grease

Grease

Rub oil, shortening, butter or fat over surface of cooking utensil or on a food. May also use a lecithin based, non-fat cooking spray, unless bake ware does not recommend it.


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hr

Hour

Hour. An hour is a unit of time, equal to 60 minutes. The hour hand is pointing to
the number "3" on the clock to your right.


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Knead

Knead

To mix dough using a pressing and folding motion, turning and folding the dough onto itself until gluten strands form and the dough is smooth and elastic.


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lb

Pound

Pound, is a unit of mass used in the United States. One pound equals two cups.


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Marinade

Marinade

Marinade refers to the liquid foods marinate in. Marinades always contain some acidic liquid like lemon juice or vinegar to tenderize the foods, and may contain spices or herbs to add flavor. Meats are placed in marinade to tenderize and add flavor. Vegetables and fruits are placed in marinade to add flavor.


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min

Minute

Minute. A minute is a unit of measurement of time, equal to 60 seconds.
The minute hand is pointing to number "3" on the clock to your right.


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Mince

Mince

To cut or chop into very small pieces.


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Mix

Mix

To combine two ingredients by stirring or in way that makes two or more foods appear as on


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mod

 

Moderate. To be kept or keeping within reasonable or proper limits; not extreme, excessive, or intense.


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